Journal of Business and entrepreneurial
April - June Vol. 7 - 2 - 2023
e-ISSN: 2576-0971
Receipt: 11 November 2022
Approval: 02 January 2023
Page 65-79
Consumption study using blends of additives and
local fuels in combined cycles at 2800 meters above
sea level.
Estudio de consumo usando mezclas de aditivos y
combustibles locales en ciclos combinados a 2800 msnm
Brayan Steve Guanulema Nepas
Omar Ricardo Felix Pacheco
Alian Roberto Guanulema Nepas
Guillermo Gorky Reyes Campaña
The increase in the consumption of low octane fuel
in Ecuador has meant a loss of performance in
engines, to solve this problem a higher octane is
needed due to new technologies, taking into account
the increase in gasoline prices, it has been decided to
use different additives, through this research the
influence that additives have on the fuel consumption
of vehicles was determined through an analysis in real
conditions of the variations in fuel efficiency, using
the fuel that is distributed locally and additives that
are offered in the DMQ, The quantitative method
was implemented with a vehicle of Korean origin
with which several combined cycle route tests were
carried out using two types of fuel and with the
mixture of different additives, an external tank was
placed in order to have an exact measurement taking
into account the EPA FTP 75 regulations and what
the manufacturer's manual says with the geography
in which we are located, it was determined that
* Automotive Engineering, Universidad Internacional del Ecuador, Quito,
Automotive Engineer, Universidad Internacional del Ecuador, Quito,
Automotive Engineer, Universidad Internacional del Ecuador, Quito,
D. in Higher Education, Universidad Internacional del Ecuador, Quito,
Ecuador., Universidad Internacional del Ecuador,
e-ISSN: 2576-0971. April - June Vol. 7 - 2 - 2023 .
gasoline 6 with additive 2 obtained a significant saving
compared to the other tests carried out where a
great variation was not obtained in order to
determine a lower consumption both in positive
slopes and in negative slopes.
Keywords: Consumption, Additives, Prices,
El incremento en el consumo de combustible de bajo
octanaje en el Ecuador ha significado una pérdida de
rendimiento en los motores, para resolver este
problema se necesita un mayor octanaje debido a las
nuevas tecnologías, tomando en cuenta el aumento
de precios en la gasolina se ha optado por utilizar
diferentes aditivos, mediante la presente
investigación se determinó la influencia que tienen los
aditivos en el consumo de combustible de los
vehículos a través de un análisis en condiciones reales
de las variaciones en el rendimiento de combustible,
utilizando el combustible que se distribuye a nivel
local y aditivos que se ofertan en el DMQ, se
implementó el método cuantitativo con un vehículo
de procedencia coreana con el cual se efectuó
diversas pruebas de ruta de ciclo combinado
utilizando dos tipos de combustible y con la mezcla
de diferentes aditivos, se colocó un tanque externo
para así tener una medición exacta tomando en
cuenta la normativa EPA FTP 75 y lo que dice el
manual del fabricante con la geografía a la que nos
encontramos, se determinó que la gasolina 6 con el
aditivo 2 obtuvo un ahorro significativo a
comparación de las demás pruebas realizadas donde
no se obtuvo una gran variación para poder
determinar un menor consumo tanto en pendientes
positivas como en pendientes negativas.
Palabras clave: Consumo, Aditivos, Precios,
e-ISSN: 2576-0971. April - June Vol. 7 - 2 - 2023 .
Nationally, there is a large increase in SUV vehicles which means an increase in fuel consumption,
this type of vehicle brings with it new engine technologies, this implies that a higher octane fuel
is needed to avoid damage to engine parts. In Ecuador, "in the first half of 2022, the demand for
super gasoline fell 20%, this happened the same in the period of 2021. The increase in the price
of this fuel drives drivers to migrate to other gasolines". (Serrano, 2022). The use of this type of
low octane fuels has an impact on engine performance variation and also on an increase in
environmental problems. Different alternatives have been tested in search of reducing the
affectation to the engines due to the low octane rating of gasoline, one of them is the use of
additives. In the present investigation it was analyzed if the additives improve combustion, reduce
fuel consumption and contaminating emissions, without affecting the mechanical components,
and determine which is the adequate percentage, so that they are functional, comparing with a
fuel that is distributed at a local level.
This research determined the influence that additives have on the fuel consumption of vehicles,
in order to establish through analysis under real conditions the variations in the fuel consumption
of engines using the fuel that is distributed locally and the implementation of additives that are
offered in the DMQ through a comparative study. In the first instance, the most sold vehicles at
the local level were established in order to carry out the research. Subsequently, the different
types of local additives were analyzed, with their technical data sheets and through field research
to determine the most viable ones to improve engine performance. Once the vehicles and
additives were selected, dynamic tests were carried out applying EPA FTP 75 regulations with
different types of fuels without additives and with additive concentrations, establishing specific
driving routes and under real conditions. Finally, a comparison was made of the variation in fuel
consumption with the use of local fuels and with the implementation of additives marketed in
the DMQ, to determine whether there is a variation in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions
in laboratory and road tests.
"Tracking the difference in fuel consumption between official or manual and real-world
measurements is a topic of great interest to policy makers and researchers worldwide" (Ktistakis
et al., 2022). In addition, "concerns about the environmental and energy crisis worldwide have
drawn attention to the reduction of fuel consumption of internal combustion engines"
(Karnaukhov et al., 2022). To measure or determine fuel consumption, indirect tests exist,
mainly the carbon balance method, however, performing this type of test presents requirements
that are difficult to follow (Fu et al., 2021). Most of the fuel and lubricants are imported from
other countries. The issue of fuel economy is relevant (Troyanovskaya, 2022). Fuel consumption
of the transport sector accounts for about 30% of total greenhouse gas emissions (Alshayeb et
al., 2021). Vehicles with new technologies are those that require better quality fuel to guarantee
the useful life of the engines. Currently, in the Ecuadorian market, super gasoline is the highest
quality with 92 octane (Serrano, 2022). The research was carried out by performing fuel
consumption tests with different percentages of additives and fuels marketed nationally, which
are, consumption tests with Super and Extra gasoline, the tests were conducted in two modes,
one of them consumption tests on the road in ideal driving conditions, for which a driving model
was applied both in urban and highway or extra-urban route applying the EPA FTP 75 regulations
to establish fuel consumption.
Gasolines are a mixture of hydrocarbons obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil, whose
properties of volatility, flammability and octane rating provide the vehicle's engine with easy cold
starting and maximum power during acceleration.
e-ISSN: 2576-0971. April - June Vol. 7 - 2 - 2023 .
"In 1990, Super gasoline was introduced in the national market, a gasoline that according to
Ecuadorian regulations has 92 octane, as part of a requirement for new internal combustion
engine technologies that have a high compression ratio. Also, as a contribution to the protection
of the environment, since it does not contain tetraethyl lead as an antiknock agent, a substance
that causes severe damage to health." (Alexandra Aguilar, 2016)
Octane rating
The octane number is the anti-knock characteristic of gasoline, i.e. how easy the fuel is to ignite.
The anti-knock index is the sum of the octane number obtained by the Research method and
the octane number obtained by the Motor method. (Plaza, 2020)
Eq. [1]
Where (IAD) is the anti-knock index, (MON) motor octane number, (RON) is the Research
octane number.
Fuel characteristics
The physical characteristics of a fuel are those that affect its ability to form a gaseous mixture of
fuel and air suitable for the type of engine in which it is to be used; they also influence its storage,
transportation and sales criteria. The chemical characteristics, on the other hand, affect its
capacity and behavior during combustion and also its safety during storage. (Flores, 2004)
Table 1. Physicochemical characteristics of fuels
Octane number
Specific gravity
Kg/ cm³
Calorific value
Distillation 10%
Distillation 50%
Distillation 90%
Final point
Distillation residue
Vapor pressure
Gum content
mg/100 cm³
Sulfur content, Ws
Oxidation stability
Oxygen content
Note: Authors based on (INEC, 2002)